In the United Kingdom, prisoners who serve a certain sentence (a firm time in prison) are released “under licence” before the completion of their full sentence. [11] The license is the prisoner`s agreement to maintain certain conditions, such as. B regular reporting to a probation officer and to a single authorized address, in exchange for early release. If they violate the conditions of the licence, they can be “recalled” (taken back to prison). [12] [13] Licensing and the agencies that mandate them are often criticized by libertarians such as Milton Friedman, as they create an anti-competitive environment for professions that create a barrier to entry for more skilled and skilled people who might not have the resources to obtain the necessary licenses. According to Friedman, licenses and permits have become so cumbersome because of legislation that favors the current settlement of affluent residents that they reduce the supply of such professions, which increases prices for the average consumer. Libertarians and the anti-authoritarian left (anarchocommunists) consider that competing guilds and other voluntary municipalities are more beneficial for the dissemination of the skills and education necessary for a given career. In addition to the detailed research of all parties, the licensing agreements define in detail how the licensed parties can use features, including the following parameters: The patent license has been examined in formal business models in the field of industrial organization. In particular, Katz and Shapiro (1986) investigated the optimal licensing strategy of a research lab that sells products to competing companies in the market. [15] It turns out that the licensor`s incentives to develop the innovation may be excessive (compared to the solution that maximises well-being), while the licensor`s incentives to disseminate the innovation are generally too weak. Subsequently, the pioneering work of Katz and Shapiro (1986) was expanded in several directions. For example, Bhattacharya, Glazer and Sappington (1992) have taken into account the need for companies purchasing licences to invest more to develop marketable products.

[16] Schmitz (2002, 2007) showed that due to selection or moral risks, asymmetric information can lead the research laboratory to sell more licenses than would be taken into account in complete information. [17] [18] Antelo and Sampayo (2017) examined the optimal number of licenses in a signalling model. [19] If a license is revocable by the licensor, the courts cannot grant a specific benefit in favor of the licensee. [6] A licensee would not be able to assert rights to forced entry or detention proceedings, as no potential interest has ever been granted to the licensee. . . .